Information Technology Security Audit

A computer security audit is both a manual and systematic technical assessment of a system or application. Manual assessments embody interviewing workers, performing security vulnerability scans, reviewing application and operating system access controls, and analyzing physical access to the systems. Automated assessments, or CAAT’s, embody system generated audit reports by using software to observe and report changes to files and settings on a system. Systems will embody personal computers, servers, mainframes, network routers, switches. Applications, on the other hand, will embody net Services, Microsoft Project Central, oracle Database.

Audit Event Reporting
During the past several decades, systematic audit record generation (also known as audit event reporting) will solely be described as accidental. Ironically, within the early days of mainframe and mini-computing with massive scale, single-vendor, custom software systems from corporations like IBM and Hewlett Packard, auditing was thought of a mission critical operate. Over the last thirty years, industrial off-the-shelf (COTS) software applications and parts and micro computers have gradually replaced custom software and hardware as less expensive business management solutions.

During this transition, the crucial nature of audit event reporting gradually reworked into low priority client needs. Software shoppers, having very little else to fall back on, have merely accepted the lesser standards as traditional. The patron licenses of existing COTS software disclaim all liability for security, performance and knowledge integrity problems.

Traditional Logging
Using ancient logging strategies, applications and parts submit free-form text messages to system logging facilities like the Unix Syslog method, or the Microsoft Windows System, Security or Application event logs. Java applications usually fall back to the quality Java logging facility, log4j. These text messages typically contain info solely assumed to be security-relevant by the appliance developer, who is commonly not a computer- or network-security knowledgeable.
The fundamental downside with such free-form event records is that every application developer individually determines what info ought to be included in an audit event record, and therefore the overall format within which that record ought to be presented to the audit log.

Modern Auditing Services
Most modern enterprise operating systems, as well as Microsoft Windows, Solaris, Mac OS X, and FreeBSD (via the TrustedBSD Project) support audit event logging thanks to needs within the Common Criteria (and additional traditionally, the Orange Book). Each FreeBSD and Mac OS X build use of the open supply OpenBSM library and command suite to get and method audit records.